Psychological mechanisms in criminal justice: Deconstructing objectivity

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Kognicija človeka se je skozi čas prilagodila različnim in predvsem preživitvenim potrebam ljudi v različnih zgodovinskih okoljih. Zaradi zapletenosti in nevarnosti zunanjega sveta so možgani prilagodili strategije odločanja, da bi bili učinkoviti tako glede porabe časa kot tudi glede porabe energije. To je pripeljalo do dvoje narave človeka odločanja: to po eni strani omogoča hitrejše in energetsko učinkovitejše odzive, kadar so takšni odzivi potrebni, na drugi strani pa omogoča počasnejše in bolj pretehtane odločitve v drugačnih okoliščinah (Kahnemanova (2011) sistema 1 in 2). Vendar pa sprejemanje odločitev glede na časovno in energetsko učinkovitost ni popolno in pogosto vodi do napak pri presoji. Te so bile preučevane v različnih kontekstih (glej npr. Kahneman, Ariely, Thaler, Sunstein) in so lahko bolj ali manj škodljive v našem vsakdanjem življenju – najbolj zaskrbljujoče pa so v okoliščinah, ki zahtevajo preudarne odločitve, od katerih sta odvisna položaj in prihodnost človeka v družbi.

Human cognition has evolved through time adapting to the various, mostly survivalist needs of humans in their various historical settings. The complexity and dangers of the outer world have caused the brain to adapt decision-making strategies to be efficient in terms of both time and energy consumption. This has led to a two-tier reality of human decision-making that, on the one hand, facilitates faster and more energy-efficient responses when such responses are needed, and on the other hand, allows for slower and more deliberate decisions in different circumstances (Kahneman’s systems 1 and 2 respectively). However, the time- and energy-saving decision-making is less than perfect and often leads to mistakes in judgment. These have been studied in various contexts (see e.g. authors like Kahneman, Ariely, Thaler, Sunstein) and might be more or less harmful in our everyday lives, but are most alarming in settings that require deliberate decisions upon which people’s well-being, status and future in society depend.

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