Automated Justice: Social, Ethical and Legal Implications

Avtomatizirana pravičnost: družbeni, etični in pravni vidiki

V zadnjih desetletjih se postopoma uvajajo avtonomni sistemi, ki na številnih področjih pri izvrševanju nalog nadomeščajo človeka (npr. smrtonosni avtonomni oborožitveni sistemi, sistemi za podatkovno rudarjenje in analizo, robotske kirurške naprave, algoritemska analitična in napovedna programska oprema), med drugim tudi na področju nadzora in varnosti, tj. v obliki napovednega policijskega dela (Beck & McCue 2009), avtomatiziranih sistemov določanja kazni (Angwin, Larson, Mattu, Kirchner 2016) ali polavtonomnih sistemov v oboroženih spopadih. Vedno večja zmožnost samostojnega delovanja z omejenim človeškim nadzorom do katere prihaja pri avtonomnih sistemih odpira š tevilna kriminološka, pravna in etična vprašanja (na primer o jezikovnih pristranskostih, integriranih v algoritme, Caliskan, Bryson, Narayanan 2017). Splošni cilj raziskave je raziskati, kako se delovanje pravosodnega sistema na nacionalni ravni in uveljavljanje mednarodnega prava na mednarodni ravni, spreminja z vedno večjo uporabo avtonomnih sistemov, da bi ugotovili, zakaj so avtonomni sistemi za družbo po eni strani lahko koristni in zakaj lahko, po drugi strani, predstavljajo poseg v človekove pravice in druge temeljne vrednote naših družb.

Over the past decades, autonomous systems (e.g. lethal autonomous weapons systems, systems for data mining and analysis, robotic surgical devices, algorithm-based analytic and predictive software) have gradually been introduced to replace humans in carrying out functions in a number of areas. These areas include the control and security domain (i.e. in the form of predictive policing (Beck & McCue 2009)), automated judicial sentencing systems (Angwin, Larson, Mattu, Kirchner 2016), autonomous weapons systems carrying out combat operations in armed conflicts, etc. These systems’ increasing ability to act on their own with limited human control raises many criminological, legal and ethical concerns (e.g. Caliskan, Bryson, Narayanan 2017). The overall objective of this research is to explore how the enforcement of law, i.e. criminal justice at the national level and enforcement of international law at the international level, is changing with the ever-increasing use of autonomous systems. In so doing we will aim to determine how and why autonomous systems might be useful and beneficial to society on the one hand, and how and why they might represent a risk for human rights and other fundamental values of our societies on the other hand.

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